. Why logic exists
Is it possible that "logic does not exist"?
A possibility must be logical. [by definition]
Therefore logic exists.
'Logic': the fact that a thing is not what it is not.
'Thing': anything that is not what it is not.
All the rules of the universe are restatements of this definition. [See points 2,3,4, etc.]
Logic does not need a physical basis: the physical is made of logic, not the other way around. [see 'mass', and 'our universe']
. Why there is something rather than nothing
Logic is something.
Therefore something exists.
"Something": a particular thing.
"Nothing": not something.
"Absolute nothing" has never been observed. E.g.
- "Nothing in my hand" usually means "air in my hand"
- "Nothing in the vacuum of outer space" means "just the usual quantum fluctuations"
- Mathematical zero means "numbers exist, and this is one of them"
- The mathematical empty set "()" contains various actual properties (such as zero size)
So a better question is "why do people think 'absolute nothing' could exist?"
. Why two things exist
Logic exists, and means "not something else". [see 'logic']
So two concepts exist: "something" and "something else".
. Why more than two things exist
. Why more than three things exist
. Why numbers exist
By continuing this logic [above] we have infinite things.
Each is defined as one more thing than the previous thing. [see above]
For convenience we can call them numbers.
For convenience we can just write the numbers without the drawings.
"Numbers": a series of "one thing more than the previous thing".
. Why dimensions exist
For convenience we call "numbers of numbers" dimensions.
"Dimensions": numbers, where each number is a itself a series of numbers.
For convenience we can call the original number line "x" and count the new number lines as "y".
Similar logic creates numbers of dimensions. In other words, unlimited dimensions.
. Why space exists
Space is just a word for dimensions, particulary three dimensions. [see 'dimensions'] "space"
"Space": a common word for dimensions, expecially three dimensions.
Every number describes a position in space.
E.g. "x=5 and y=2" describes a point in two dimensions.
It also describes a whole line of points in 3D space (three dimensional space).
"x=5, y=2, z=6" describes a point in 3D space, or the space between it and another point.
So space is made of infinite positions and relative spaces.
Fractal images are from the Fractal Bargain Bin - one of the best art sites on the web.
. Why mathematics exists
"Mathematics": the logic of exploring numbers.
- If we count in groups of three numbers.
- ...then we have discovered "multiplication" (this is the three times table).
- In the first step ("move forwards 3") we discover "addition".
- If we add numbers in groups the same size as the number (e.g. five fives, six sixes) we discover squared numbers.
- If rules apply no matter what the number (e.g. number + number is the same as 2 times number) we discover algebra.
- Algebra reminds us that a single number can be considered as a collection of smaller ones:
this discovery leads to division, decimals, integration, an so on.
. Why Equations exist
Mathematics can involve identical outcomes (e.g. two processes both result in "3") [see 'mathematics']
So one part equals the other.
We call this an equation.
"Equation": two mathematical changes that have the same result.
We already derived mathematics, so why state the obvious? Because this is crucial to the next points: everything in the universe is shapes (i.e. equations).
The universe itself is the equation "existence is existence." [see 'nothing']
It thus has no intrinsic dimensions: it is simply the minimum possible concept, the baseline for anything.
All dimensions are emergent properties from this: they emerge from existence equating to itself. [see points 1,2,3,4, etc.]
. Why shapes exist
In 1 dimension (just the "x" dimension), the equation "x =5" has one solution: a line of length 5.
In 2 dimensions, "x=5" contains all possible lines where "x=5". This forms a rectangle.
In 3 dimensions, there are even more cases where "x=5": this forms a cuboid.
These solutions, when taken together, are called Lines, areas, volumes, etc.
Collectively they are called shapes,
"Solution": the result of an equation. E.g. if "x=5" in a space that includes "x" and "y" then "y" could be any number.
"Shape": all possible results of an equation in space.
"Wave": a shape that repeats itself many times.
Lines and squares are simple, but equations can also be more complex. For example, the mathematics of a circle: as we go round the circle, how much do "x" and "y" change? This creates a sine wave shape. Adding a sine waves in "y" to another sine wave in "z" creates a bumpy three dimensional shape.
. Why disconnected shapes exist
So a cross section (a lower dimension) will contain apparently disconnected shapes.
"Particles": apparently disconnected tiny shapes in space.
An interesting example of this is John Wheeler's suggestion
that all electrons appear identical because they are the same electron moving backward and forward in time. (He suggested that positrons are the electron on its return trips.)
Another interesting example is a fractal shape. These shapes that have infinite detail, no matter how closely you look.
(Image: public domain fractal object via Wikimedia.)
So a single four dimensional fractal object might appear to be millions of wildly different separate objects when seen in three dimensions.
(Image: from the Fractal Bargain Bin.)
. Why different universes exist
"Fact": an equation or its logical implications. E.g. "the gun was 3 feet from the body [an equation], therefore... [the implied fact]"
"Universe": all things that are. That is, everything logically consistent with a fact or facts.
"Multiverse" or "omniverse": all alternate universes.
An observation, far from revealing a pre-existing universe, simply narrows down the possible universes. See quantum physics, discussed later.
. Why Occam's razor exists
Complex parts (of anything) contain simpler parts. [by definition]
So there are more simple parts than complex parts.
So if a part is unknown it is more likely to be simple than complex.
"Occam's razor": the rule that unnecessary parts of a theory should be shaved off, as with a razor.
This approximates to the rule that "when two explanations are equally likely, choose the simplest one."
. Why different points of view exist
Numbers are relative. [see 'numbers']
So the same universe could be considered from different points in space, and have different numbers from those points.
For example, from position zero, position five is "plus 5". But from position five's point of view, it is point zero and point zero is "really" position "minus five." So the resulting shapes will be different.
Image: a three dimensional shape considered in two dimensions, as seen from two points of view. By Jean-Christophe Benoist for Wikimedia, GNU 1.2 license.
. Why time is different
The third dimension only sees a slice of the fourth. [see 'space']
So, much of this dimension is unknown.
This mysterious fourth dimension can be called "time".
"Time": the fourth dimension, from the point of view of the third dimension.
. Why movement
"Movement": change of position as time changes. E.g. meters per second.
"Acceleration": change of position as time changes. E.g. a change in the number of meters per second.
Take the equation y=x2. Some possible possible results of that equation are the points (1,1),(2,4),(3,9),(4,16), etc. Together they form a curve.
If "x" is time (with units we can call seconds) and "y" is a distance in space (with units we can call metres) then the amount of space that changes each unit of time is the metres per second, or speed. This can be measured as the slope of the graph. In this case the speed changes every second: the amount of change (the acceleration) is the difference in metres per second, per second.
Why movement follows patterns
Maths creates shapes. The maths of the time dimension is no different. [see 'shapes']
So points along the time dimension tend to follow smooth curves.
So shapes in time are just as ordered as the shapes that exist in lower dimensions.
. Why time has a direction
Large numbers contain small numbers. [see 'mathematics']
The larger the number, the more numbers are contained within it.
So larger numbers are more complex, and smaller numbers are less complex, giving numbers (such as time) a direction.
Time is largely hidden from lower dimensions [see 'time']
, so we largely do not know what shapes [see 'shapes']
The mathematics of permutations and combinations shows that even a small increase in available numbers mean a massive increase in possible shapes.
So the larger time direction is vastly less predictable than the smaller direction..
In other words, as time increases its contents grow far more random. The direction of more randomness is the direction of time.
. Why some particles attract, forming structures
Apparently separate particles may be connected, so are more likely to be together than apart. [see 'disconnected shapes']
So when they are found apart the next example is likely to be closer together. [see 'Occam's razor']
If the particles are connected in the time dimension [see 'movement'], this change is called attraction.
"Structure": a group of particles that stick together in a particular way. E.g. atoms, molecules, or even buildings and people.
For similar reasons, some particles are more likely to be far apart: these are said to repel.
. Why mass exists
Particles attract and repel by different amounts. [see 'particles attract']
Or in other words, some particles will resist attraction.
The amount that a particle resists a change in movement (i.e. its tendency to inertia) is called its "inertial mass".
"Mass": how much a particle (or structure) resists being moved.
The amount that a particle with inertial mass attracts another particle with inertial mass is called its "gravitational mass".
Gravitational and inertial mass are equal. This fact was key to Einstein expanding his "special relativity" into "general relativity".
. Why force and energy exist
Mass acceleration (mass multiplied by acceleration) is called force. [by definition]
Different types of particle may have different amounts of force. These can be given names: "electrical" force, "magnetic" force, etc.
The total force needed to move a mass a particular distance is called energy. [by definition]
"Force": mass multiplied by acceleration.
"Energy": force multiplied by distance.
This leads to concepts like "potential energy" (the energy a mass will experience if allowed to fall), power (energy per second) and so on.
. Why light exists
Changing a force implies a change of energy. [see 'force and energy']
The energy involved in switching between electrical force and magnetic force is called "electromagnetic".
When this energy is transferred in certain quantities it is called "light".
"Light": the tansfer of certain amounts of energy between electrical force and magnetic force.
Force can be thought of as a field of lines, usually spreading out from or surrounding a central point.
Some particles routinely switch back and forth between electrical and
magnetic force, and this rapid switching can be thought of as waves.
If the frequency of changing is just right then the energy of these waves can be transferred to other particles, such as the atoms in the human eye. These frequencies are called visible light.
. Why the speed of light matters
Speed is a measure of distance in relation to time. . [by definition]
So if there is a maximum speed (i.e. the speed of light) this places fixed limits on distance and/or time.
It also limits acceleration, which changes either force, mass or both [see 'mass']
Einstein famously used this reasoning to demonstrate that mass must be simply a curvature in space time, and is a form of energy.
He also showed that objects at the speed of light experience zero time. Yet they share our universe. So time is just our point of view.
. Why quantum uncertainty exists
The multiverse is made of infinite possibilities. [see 'universes']
A universe is the logical implications of fixing any values. [see 'universes']
So when a single value (called a quantum) is fixed, all related values are instantly fixed:
as if many superimposed universes suddenly collapse into one.
"Quantum": the smallest unit of change.
. Why cause and effect
If condition A is the simplest way to infer condition B (and B is later in time), then we say that A causes B. [by definition]
So we can know B by knowing A, without having to know the entire four dimensional shape. [see 'movement']
So the idea of "cause" greatly simplifies space and time.
The cause of "time zero" (i.e. the cause of the fourth dimension) is the third dimension. [see 'dimensions']
. Why chemistry exists
"Chemistry": the logic of how particles attract (or repel) and the resulting groups and energy changes.
Some particles will tend to form structures (groups stuck together) more easily due to their mathematical arrangement.
Perhaps the best particle for making complex structures is the carbon atom. The study of carbon interactions is called organic chemistry.
. Why reproduction exists
Interactions can cause any possible structures from particles. [see 'chemistry']
So some structures will be as complex as theoretically possible.
So some of these will interact in ways that produce copies of themselves (by interacting with surrounding particles and structures).
"Reproduction": a structure using surrounding structures or particles to make copies of itself.
Reproduction could be as simple as molecule "A" reacting with molecule "B" to change "B" into a copy of "A". Or it could be as complex as human DNA and pregnancy.
. Why competitive advantage exists
Reproduction requires other particles, or resources. [see 'reproduction']
If two systems might use the same resources, but only one of them can, they are said to be "in competition".
The system that more often ends up with the resources can be said to have "competitive advantage".
"Resource": structures or particles needed for creating new structures. [see 'disconnected shapes']
"Competition": where two systems need the same resources, but only one can use them.
"Competitive advantage": the tendency to win when in competition.
. Why evolution exists
"Evolution": change, due to some structures reproducing more than others.
Evolution appears to involve random changes within structures, leading to changes in the results.
But another way to look at it is that nothing changes in the fourth dimension: these are just shapes created by the initial equations of the universe.
What we call random change is just that part of the next 3D cross section that cannot be predicted from this 3D cross section. [see 'cause and effect']
Everything we see evolved "from" the initial mathematical state. The existence of God is discussed later. [see 'God']
Big bang by NASA WMAP; cosmic web simulation by Johan Hidding: it can represent galactic superstructures, neurons, or quantum foam.
. Why this logic is our physical universe
We have seen that logic must exist, and all the fundamentals of the universe must therefore follow. [see points 1-37]
Applying Occam's razor, no other reality is needed. [see 'Occam's razor']
We have seen that logic creates dimensions containing all kinds of shapes.
Fractal images are from the Fractal Bargain Bin - one of the best art sites on the web.
These shapes can include particles that exert forces.
Image source: protein molecules inside a cell, by Andy Nestl (GNU 1.2 license via Wikimedia).
These particles can combine to form atoms, molecules, stars, planets and much more.
. Why brains exist
"Brain": a structure for modeling possible scenarios, to improve choices.
Brains, being structures, also require resources. So bigger is not always better. The most successful species (in terms of reproducing in large numbers) are the tiniest ones with tiny brains: their low resource requirements mean they can afford to make mistakes andy evolve very quickly.
. Why short term memory exists
The brain must deal with unknown inputs from an infinite universe. [see 'brains']
So some decisions will be very complex.
So the brain needs a place to compare several inputs while making a decision.
"Short term memory": a part of the brain where several ideas are compared in one place.
Short term memory can typically handle seven ideas at once.
Comparing seven items takes longer than comparing fewer. So for speed most decisions will become unconscious habits where possible.
. What is consciousness
"Consciousness": short term memory.
So you are not a person who has ideas, you are the ideas in your brain.
. Why experience exists
"Experience": being a relationship: greater, less, etc.
This may take some getting used to. But see the emotion examples
: each is a linear quantity.
Complex emotions can be explained as a complex and changing mix of these linear quantities.
. Why emotions exist
The brain models the chance of survival. [see 'brains']
So every idea in the brain will contribute in some way to survival.
Emotion can be explained as the experience [see experience] of survival value (see examples).
"Emotion": the survival value of an experience.
- Joy: sudden improvement in relationships, fortunes, etc. These increase the chance that genes and ideas will survive.
- Terror: the opposite.
- Surprise: a sudden need for vigilance (due to sudden new information that is useful for survival).
- Sadness: non-sudden terror. We dwell on bad information looking for a way out but not finding one.
. Why images in the mind are binary
Spaces can be represented by numbers, based ultimately on binary ("yes/no") data. [see 'space']
The belief that "I see everything at once" is also a binary ("yes/no") state. [by definition]
Using Occam's razor [see 'Occam's razor'], our experience of space is binary.
Imagine a conscious mind that has data delivered from the unconscious (eyes, memory, etc.) as fast as it needs. So whenever the mind requests
data it is there. The conscious could behave as if a model of the entire world was in the head at the same time.
. Why consciousness survives death
Consciousness is short term memory. [see 'consciousness']
Short term memory ideas that define a person may disappear, then reappear much later. [That is the nature of short term memory.]
The same ideas can appear in other minds, even long after the first body dies. [It is the nature of ideas to be spread.]
There is more similarity between ideas across generations (at the same age, given a similar environment) than within the same body (when comparing the baby to the old person). So ideas survive death better than they survive life.
. Why a mind can remember billions of years
Memory is any feature that can retrieve useful information about the past. [by definition]
So genes are a form of memory, as is the environment.
So the mind can retrieve information from billions of years in the past.
"Memory": a store of information about the past, that assists the conscious mind.
The further back we go the more individual events there are, and the less relevant each will be. So instead, genes conclusions: that is, general rules.
E.g. one gene says "if you are an embryo, grow this body part." Another gene says "if you see a predator, be afraid."
. Why equality is natural
Competitive advantage means the losers must do better or not survive. [see 'competitive advantage']
Most of this takes place in the brain: rather than wait for death, the brain will look for clues for weakness and copy what works.[see 'brains']
So unless prevented, all competitors will improve to the level of the best.
"People": structures that over a long period have evolved complex brains and behaviours.
Some variation and delay is needed, to prepare for the unexpected [See 'the long view']
. Over generations even fundamental internal differences can be copied, e.g. through mating.
. Why take the long view
Brains can be wrong, or the environment can change unexpectedly.
This can undo many generations of work.
So it is healthy to take life slow: think in terms of generations, not days. [See 'surviving death']
In the short term a strong individual can confuse or dominate weaker individuals, and appear to succeed more than they do. But this weakens society, making it more likely to be replaced by a more equal and therefore stronger society. [See 'society' and morality]
. Why society?
Since people naturally imitate the best [see 'equality'], they will tend to have similar desires.
So they can work together to gain those desires in ways impossible for any individual.
So individuals gain more of what they want from being in society. [see 'competitive advantage']
"Society": people who work together for common needs.
If everyone wants the same, will we run out of resources? Not if brains plan ahead to recycle or create new resources (or adapt to new resources) faster than they are used.
. Why power hierarchies are bad
If individuals have power over others then those below will use their brains to level up. [see 'equality']
So inequality can only exist if opportunities are very heavily restricted.
This reduces the overall growth of society, which makes everyone far poorer, even the person at the top.
"Power" (in the context of hierarchies): the ability to make things happen.
"Hierarchy": where people control those below them.
Equal societies still have management hierarchies, just as there are hierarchies in any specialism: the best musician, most experienced plumber, etc.
If managers pay themselves much more than other specialisms this is proof of hidden barriers to competition.
. Why morality
Survival depends on resources. [by definition]
Individual resources are increased by increasing group resources. [see 'society']
Rules to achieve this in the long term are called morality (see examples).
"Morality": rules to increase resources for both society and each individual (in the long term).
- Treat others how we would like to be treated (the golden rule): this avoids power hierarchies, so benefits society. [see 'hierarchies']
- Tell the truth: this enables better decisions, hence better outcomes.
- Do not steal: this allows us to use resources and plan ahead.
Money, property and rent
. Wealth and money
Wealth is desired resources. [by definition]
Money is any tokens that represent wealth. [by definition]
So money makes it easier to carry (and therefore compare and exchange) wealth.
"Wealth": desired resources.
"Money": any tokens representing wealth.
. Property laws
Moral laws exist to create the most resources for society and the individual. [see 'morality']
So correct (i.e. moral) property laws can be measured as those that create the most resources.
"Property": resources a person (the property owner) can use.
Philosophers on property
. Work and pay
Work is actions that create or obtain resources. [by definition]
So work can be measured: how many resources were added?
Actions have causes [see 'cause and effect']. The resources required (by the worker) to cause work can be called pay.
"Work": actions that increase resources.
"Pay": resources needed (by a worker) to make work happen.
Strictly speaking "work" here means "work for resources". In general, work is any action, regardless of its value, and is measured as force multiplied by distance.
. What is the right pay?
If someone is paid more resources than they add, there is a net loss. [by definition]
The worker wants resources, [see 'competitive advantage'] so if they are paid less then they add, they will tend to withhold work until paid more.
So for maximum resources, the worker should be paid what they add.
The buyer gains no resources simply by spending money: instead they change the form of their resources into something they can then work on and sell. Only work creates resources.
. How to measure property
Correct property laws are those that create the most wealth for society. [see 'property laws']
The most wealth is created if you are paid what you add. [see 'optimal price']
So your economic property equals whatever you add to society.
Your property can of course be negative if you harm society.
. Paying for intellectual property
Intellectual property has a very small physical presence so can be easily copied. [by definition]
So it is harder to track the value added.
So it requires a more efficient and more trusted government. [see 'deal government' below]
"Intellectual property": created resources in the form of information.
The current way of paying for intellectual property is to limit its use. This limits its benefit, thus weakening society.
. Why government?
"Government": any entity that governs (i.e. makes rules that are followed)
"Government" refers to any entity that makes rules. It could be a temporary voluntary anarchist cooperative.
. Why a government should charge land rent.
Land value is increased by the presence of nearby roads, markets, services, etc. [by definition]
So that added value is created by society, and is therefore the property of society. [see 'measuring property']
For maximum wealth creation the value of a thing should be paid to the one who creates it. [see 'optimal price']
"Land": any natural resource: mainly space on the ground, but also the sky, the electromagnetic spectrum, etc.
"Rent": regular payment for work.
"Land rent": rent for land's natural value: value before any buildings, planting, etc. Also called "land value tax".
. Why a government should not tax work
Tax increases prices. [by definition]
So work was barely affordable becomes unaffordable.
So less work is done.
So land rent creates jobs
Even if land rent costs the same as tax, it is fixed. So additional work is tax free.
In most advanced nations, total taxation is around 40 percent of GDP.
In other words, on average, work that costs $100 without tax must be sold for $167 (so that subtracting 40% leaves $100).
So without taxes, additional work can be offered for just $100, resulting in many more sales.
. More efficient land use
To avoid land rent [see 'land rent'], idle land will be sold to those who can use it.
So land (in total) will be used more efficiently.
. Cheaper mortgages
Land rent cannot increase the total cost of land, as it is already at its maximum (for a given economy). [see notes]
Meanwhile interest rates cannot go higher, as they are already at their maximum (for a given economy). [see notes]
But more land will enter the market, so the land price will go down. [see 'land use']
Without land rent, land that is owned outright has minimal costs. Meanwhile banks can create loans at minimal cost due to fractional lending (where for every dollar they have they can lend ten to thirty dollars) and repossession (where defaults mean the bank owns the property). So they have no pressure to sell: they are free to withhold land or lending until they get the highest possible price. (Where charging even more means people use less land and borrow less.) So prices only go up when the economy goes up, so people are willing to pay more. But with land rent, land owners have to sell in order to avoid rent: they can no longer force prices up by not selling.
However, bankers and land owners still profit from land rent: bankers due to the expanding economy which needs all forms of banking, and land owners
due to generous price guarantees.
. Lower costs for business
Land rent requires less paperwork (as it only measures one thing, and that thing does not change often). [by definition]
Land rent does not subsidise a dead weight of non-payers (as land cannot be hidden).
Making tax avoiders pay will not harm efficiency. In all but the least efficient nations, tax payers outnumber tax avoiders. So tax payers
compete and often win against non-tax payers. So these tax payers are more efficient at business. So by replacing non payer with payers there
is a net increase in efficiency.
. More stability
Rent makes simply owning land less profitable. [see 'land rent']
So land speculation will go down.
So land prices will be more stable.
Historically, land prices have been a major factor in the boom and bust economic cycle.
So land rent will tend to make the economy more stable and predictable. This improves decision making.
. Many times more wealth
Each of the above effects increases economic efficiency. [see previous points]
So the economy will grow faster each year.
So absolute wealth under land rent will be far more than under tax.
Economists can debate the exact numbers but the big picture is clear.
Later proofs will show how land rent leads to better information and better government, leading to even faster growth.
. Everyone will benefit
Land rent is a big change, and big changes can be difficult. [by definition]
So it will be easy for those who lose out to stop it.
So any introduction of land rent must ensure nobody loses out (or it will not happen).
There are several ways to bring in land rent so that everyone benefits. For example:
- Very slowly, by gradually reforming current taxes
- All at once, with a system of compensation (temporary redistribution)
- In small geographical areas, and let them grow.
. ...even land owners
If rent makes land unprofitable then its selling price (and thus rent) go down until it is profitable again. [by definition]
Prices will eventually recover due to the faster growing economy. [see 'more wealth']
So governments can compensate owners using bonds based on expected future value. [see notes]
A government can issue notes that promise to buy land in 30 years. The
faster growing land rent economy means the price offered can be higher
than under tax. Those notes can then be sold right now, like any other
government bond. This provides immediate compensation for the temporary
fall in land price. Once the date arrives the government can buy the
land at the agreed rate, then immediately sell it at a profit due to the
. Land rent is an extremely sensitive measure
Land rent is simple: just one thing to measure (not thousands of taxes). [see 'land rent']
Land has a very high value, so even a very small change is worth measuring.
There are millions of plots of lands to compare, so even tiny influences can be identified statistically.
A single bad neighbour will reduce the price of many houses by thousands of dollars. Good neighbours raise house values. A tiny change in government behaviour adds or takes thousands. So all are worth measuring.
. Land rent allows deals with government
A Christina or Libertarian group might say "let us do X and we will guarantee your rent", or "let us do Y and we will empty our own trash, thus saving you money." Once it is shown to work others will come up with ideas.
. Land rent leads to your ideal government
A government's minimum role is to represent the people. That is, to gather the rent that is created by society as a whole. What they do with that rent is up for negotiation. This creates infinite potential for doing things better.
. Why land rent measures a government's value
Fixing the world
. Scientific government
. More sharing of information
Choosing a government implies greater agreement. [see 'ideal government']
Hence greater trust.
Hence more willingness to share information.
Land rent creates more jobs [see 'ending tax']
so if a land-rent government mis-uses data the people can simply leave
and encourage others to do the same. Such a government loses rent and risks bankruptcy.
Current governments obtain data against our will, so the data has a high proportion of noise, and serious gaps.
. Better decisions in every area
. End crime
If a person especially hates crime they can just join a government where ending crime is a priority. [see 'government value']
That is, where people share even more information and the penalties are
even higher. Scientific government will show exactly what works best. [see 'scientific government']
. More happiness
Rent is a measure of how much you want to live in an area. [by definition]
Or in other words, your overall happiness.
By creating more jobs, land rent creates competition for workers. [see 'ending tax']
So if governments only have land rent, they must compete to make people happier.
. No stress
Land rent only charges per unit land. [by definition]
So if you don't use much land you can live extremely cheaply.
So with low rent added to the previous advantages (plenty of jobs, low prices, ideal government, general happiness) you have no cause for stress.
If you don't want to work much: choose a tall building on cheap land,
so your share of land rent is very low. Live simply. Land rent drives
down prices, so you will only need to work a few hours per week. Spend
the rest of the week in bed, or walking in nature, or with friends.
. Less materialism
Moral needs deal with the most complex abstractions. [see 'morality']
So they require more consciousness than other needs (e.g. amassing physical goods)
So given the ability to focus on anything, people will spend more time on moral needs.
Land rent gives that choice. [see 'happiness']
. End global poverty
As the need for workers exceeds supply, governments that allow more workers will out-compete those that do not. [see 'competitive advantage']
So economic migration will be encouraged.
So the poor can simply move to better nations.
The most able workers will be in most demand [by definition].
As poor nations lose their best workers they will become ever weaker,
and more open to adopting land rent themselves in order to survive.
Likewise, corrupt nations will lose workers, so they must improve in
order to survive.
. A beautiful world
Anything that makes land more attractive to workers will raise the rent a government can claim. [see 'happiness']
So competition between nations will force them to make land more beautiful. [see 'ideal government']
. End war
If the value of land is owed as rent, then nobody benefits from simply grabbing land. [see 'land rent']
With an end to poverty, and a wide choice of government, there can be are no desperate people. [see 'poverty']
So there are fewer causes for wars.
. End tyranny
Compound growth means any fixed cost soon becomes trivial. [see 'more wealth']
So faster compound growth means any previously expected income soon becomes trivial. [see 'more wealth']
So a tyrant can be offered much more money if he allows change.
The tyrant can keep his position as a loved figurehead. It worked with many European monarchs.
Since enemies benefit there is no need for conflict. We can have peace on earth, good will to all.
. Environmental improvement
Land rent measures everything more accurately. [see 'sensitive measure']
So environmental costs will be clear
A more efficient economy will [by definition] charge those who cause the problem.
A perfect world
"having all the required or desirable elements, qualities, or characteristics;
as good as it is possible to be".
[see OxfordDictionaries.com, result 1, retrieved 10th December 2014]
Land rent creates all the desired elements, qualities and characteristics. [see previous points]
So changing to land rent (away from tax) makes a perfect world.
. Saving the planet (and the species)
Catastrophic scenarios can destroy everything that matters. [by definition]
A stronger, more flexible civilisation can prevent or reduce the damage. [by definition]
Land rent creates a stronger, more flexible civilisation. [see 'a perfect world']
So land rent can save the human race.
Death on a catastrophic scale could be caused by Asteroid impact,
Nuclear war, Plague, etc. Land rent creates more wealth and better
government, so there will be more research to be ready for disasters,
and more wealth and cooperation to solve them.
. Science: why a list of facts is not enough.
Science includes more facts than a brain can hold at once. [see 'brains']
So some facts will be rushed over.
A closer look at one fact can change everything.
|Courts of law: ||the same data but different emphasis can lead to opposite conclusions.|
|Politics: ||the same data but different emphasis can lead to opposite conclusions.|
|Self image: ||the same data but different emphasis can lead to opposite conclusions.|
|Specialism: ||e.g. a social scientist may see the value of mythology, while a physicist may not.|
|Easy targets: ||one group's mistakes are obvious and well studied, while another's are harder to see.|
|Logical fallacies: ||there are numerous subtle ways that we can be wrong and not notice.|
. Self deception
The brain exists to simplify information. [see 'brains']
So the brain removes data about the outside world.
So the brain deceives itself.
There may be times when the brain can perfectly cope
with all input. But this will be rare, because the outside world is a
very big place.
. Avoiding self deception
The brain makes decisions in order to survive. [see 'brains']
So self deception will be for the same reason. [see 'self deception']
So deception can be spotted by those with different survival needs.
An opponent's survival may benefit from your
resources. So they are motivated to find holes in your argument. Of
course, you are motivated to find flaws in their reasoning. The wise
brain tries to see their point of view as well as its own.
. Why political manifestos
Self deception is normal. [see 'self deception']
A written, comprehensive manifesto allows others to check our claims. [by definition]
So errors are more likely to be spotted. [see as every part is visible at once]
Political parties and religions have many enemies, because their
weaknesses are visible. But by restricting yourself to a single cause or
speaking only with friends you can appear to be cleverer and more moral.
. Shared minds
A mind is an emergent property from the brain. A
groups of people is an emergent property from individual people. Ideals
are emergent properties from groups, and do not even need to be held by a
Minds are complex, so each mind can only comfortably deal a limited number of other minds.
This is called "Dunbar's number"
and limits human groups to 100-150 people. By dealing with groups as if
they are individuals (e.g. businesses, religions, nations, etc.) humans can have communities larger than this.
. Why fiction
Brains use mental short cuts. [see 'self deception']
So they may model paths that do not exist in the outside world.
Those paths are called fiction. [by definition]
Imaginary numbers do not exist, but they are useful shortcuts in real mathematics.
National sovereignty only exists in the mind. But the belief allows the world to function.
The brain exists to make mental shortcuts like this [see 'brains']. So fiction is how we survive.
. Religion means rules, not beliefs
Some religions have no gods and nothing supernatural. [see notes]
The best known religion may have had no beliefs. [see notes]
All that religions have in common is a set of rules for life. [see notes]
Perhaps the best known ancient religion is that of Moses. (Jesus followed the law of Moses.) It was a set of rules and did not include belief in life after death. It only required one belief: in a God who personified logic
. Religions with no gods at all include some forms of Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Paganism, atheistic Judaism, Animism, etc.
Cicero defined religion as "re-legos" or repeating logic. Augustine defined it as "religare" or binding fast (to obligations).
So religions are proto-nations: sets of rules that are stronger than the unwritten culture, but weaker than the nation with its army and prisons.
We survive best in societies with similar needs. [see 'society']
So brains are optimized for dealing with similar brains.
So there are speed gains from treating other entities as operating like human brains.
The best conceivable rules will of course change as shared knowledge changes.
Evil can be avoided by making a perfect world. [see 'a perfect world']
If we choose not to then we choose evil. [by definition]
This may take many generations. People live after death [see 47]
so we can afford to take the long view.
Self deception [see 86]
makes us see ourselves as the good guys, but an outsider may see us differently.
. Why final punishment exists
Morality is ideas which leads to survival. [see 'morality']
So immoral ideas give a competitive disadvantage (in the long term).
So continuing to embrace immoral ideas leads to non-existence.
. The future
Strong economic systems tend to replace weak ones. [by definition]
Land rent makes the strongest economic system [see 'scientific government'] (and more equality [see 'equality'])
So land rent will eventually replace other economic systems.
. Non-supernatural heaven
Morality is what tends to help us survive [see 'morality']
So in the long run the world will get better.
Consciousness can last for ever [see 'surviving-death'], so you can eventually see heaven.